【Azure Developer】Python代码通过AAD认证访问微软Azure密钥保管库(Azure Key Vault)中机密信息(Secret)

关键字说明

什么是 Azure Active Directory?Azure Active Directory(Azure AD, AAD) 是 Microsoft 的基于云的标识和访问管理服务,可帮助员工登录和访问 Azure 中的资源:

  • 外部资源,例如 Microsoft 365、Azure 门户(https://portal.azure.cn/)以及成千上万的其他 SaaS 应用程序。

  • 内部资源,例如公司网络和 Intranet 上的应用,以及由自己的组织开发的任何云应用。

什么是Azure Key Vault?Azure Key Vault 是一个用于安全地存储和访问机密的云服务。 机密是你想要严格控制对其的访问的任何内容,例如 API 密钥、密码、证书或加密密钥。 Key Vault 服务支持:保管库。 保管库支持存储软件密钥、机密和证书。

  • 机密管理 - Azure Key Vault 可以用来安全地存储令牌、密码、证书、API 密钥和其他机密,并对其访问进行严格控制
  • 密钥管理 - Azure Key Vault 也可用作密钥管理解决方案。 可以通过 Azure Key Vault 轻松创建和控制用于加密数据的加密密钥。
  • 证书管理 - Azure Key Vault 也是一项服务,可用来轻松预配、管理和部署公用和专用传输层安全性/安全套接字层 (TLS/SSL) 证书,以用于 Azure 以及内部连接资源。

 

问题描述

在官方的示例文档中,我们可以发现Python 应用程序以使用 Azure 资源(虚拟机 VM)的托管标识(Identity)从 Azure Key Vault 读取信息,那如果同样的Python应用代码,如果想在非Azure托管的客户端运行,如何来实现呢?如何来解决如下的错误呢?

EnvironmentCredential.get_token failed: EnvironmentCredential authentication unavailable. Environment variables are not fully configured.
ManagedIdentityCredential.get_token failed: ManagedIdentityCredential authentication unavailable, no managed identity endpoint found.
SharedTokenCacheCredential.get_token failed: Azure Active Directory error '(invalid_resource) AADSTS500011: The resource principal named https://vault.azure.cn was not found in 
the tenant named xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx. This can happen if the application has not been installed by the administrator of the tenant or consented to by any user in the tenant. You might have sent your authentication request to the wrong tenant.
Trace ID: 11af8f36-693a-4105-8a6c-9e271a1b9f00
Correlation ID: 43cc4c0d-fd23-4b84-a03b-284ff93484a4
Timestamp: 2021-01-16 07:58:47Z'
DefaultAzureCredential.get_token failed: SharedTokenCacheCredential raised unexpected error "Azure Active Directory error '(invalid_resource) AADSTS500011: The resource principal named https://vault.azure.cn was not found in the tenant named xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx. This can happen if the application has not been installed by the administrator of the tenant or consented to by any user in the tenant. You might have sent your authentication request to the wrong tenant.
Trace ID: 11af8f36-693a-4105-8a6c-9e271a1b9f00
Correlation ID: 43cc4c0d-fd23-4b84-a03b-284ff93484a4
Timestamp: 2021-01-16 07:58:47Z'"
DefaultAzureCredential failed to retrieve a token from the included credentials.
Attempted credentials:
        EnvironmentCredential: EnvironmentCredential authentication unavailable. Environment variables are not fully configured.
        ManagedIdentityCredential: ManagedIdentityCredential authentication unavailable, no managed identity endpoint found.
        SharedTokenCacheCredential: Azure Active Directory error '(invalid_resource) AADSTS500011: The resource principal named https://vault.azure.cn was not found in the tenant named xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx. This can happen if the application has not been installed by the administrator of the tenant or consented to by any user in the tenant. You might have sent your authentication request to the wrong tenant.
Trace ID: 11af8f36-693a-4105-8a6c-9e271a1b9f00
Correlation ID: 43cc4c0d-fd23-4b84-a03b-284ff93484a4
Timestamp: 2021-01-16 07:58:47Z'
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "case.py", line 26, in <module>
    retrieved_secret = client.get_secret(secretName)
  File "C:\Users\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.8_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python38\site-packages\azure\core\tracing\decorator.py", line 83, in wrapper_use_tracer
    return func(*args, **kwargs)
  File "C:\Users\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.8_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python38\site-packages\azure\keyvault\secrets\_client.py", line 67, in get_secret
    bundle = self._client.get_secret(
  File "C:\Users\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.8_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python38\site-packages\azure\keyvault\secrets\_generated\_operations_mixin.py", line 1475, in get_secret
    return mixin_instance.get_secret(vault_base_url, secret_name, secret_version, **kwargs)
  File "C:\Users\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.8_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python38\site-packages\azure\keyvault\secrets\_generated\v7_1\operations\_key_vault_client_operations.py", line 276, in get_secret
    pipeline_response = self._client._pipeline.run(request, stream=False, **kwargs)
  File "C:\Users\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.8_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python38\site-packages\azure\core\pipeline\_base.py", line 211, in run
    return first_node.send(pipeline_request)  # type: ignore
  File "C:\Users\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.8_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python38\site-packages\azure\core\pipeline\_base.py", line 71, in send
    response = self.next.send(request)
  File "C:\Users\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.8_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python38\site-packages\azure\core\pipeline\_base.py", line 71, in send
    response = self.next.send(request)
  File "C:\Users\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.8_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python38\site-packages\azure\core\pipeline\_base.py", line 71, in send
    response = self.next.send(request)
  [Previous line repeated 2 more times]
  File "C:\Users\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.8_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python38\site-packages\azure\core\pipeline\policies\_redirect.py", line 157, in send
    response = self.next.send(request)
  File "C:\Users\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.8_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python38\site-packages\azure\core\pipeline\policies\_retry.py", line 436, in send
    response = self.next.send(request)
  File "C:\Users\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.8_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python38\site-packages\azure\keyvault\secrets\_shared\challenge_auth_policy.py", line 111, in send
    self._handle_challenge(request, challenge)
  File "C:\Users\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.8_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python38\site-packages\azure\keyvault\secrets\_shared\challenge_auth_policy.py", line 137, in _handle_challenge
    self._token = self._credential.get_token(scope)
  File "C:\Users\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.8_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python38\site-packages\azure\identity\_credentials\default.py", line 144, in get_token
    return super(DefaultAzureCredential, self).get_token(*scopes, **kwargs)
  File "C:\Users\AppData\Local\Packages\PythonSoftwareFoundation.Python.3.8_qbz5n2kfra8p0\LocalCache\local-packages\Python38\site-packages\azure\identity\_credentials\chained.py", line 90, in get_token
    raise ClientAuthenticationError(message=message)
azure.core.exceptions.ClientAuthenticationError: DefaultAzureCredential failed to retrieve a token from the included credentials.
Attempted credentials:
        EnvironmentCredential: EnvironmentCredential authentication unavailable. Environment variables are not fully configured.
        ManagedIdentityCredential: ManagedIdentityCredential authentication unavailable, no managed identity endpoint found.
        SharedTokenCacheCredential: Azure Active Directory error '(invalid_resource) AADSTS500011: The resource principal named https://vault.azure.cn was not found in the tenant named xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx. This can happen if the application has not been installed by the administrator of the tenant or consented to by any user in the tenant. You might have sent your authentication request to the wrong tenant.
Trace ID: 11af8f36-693a-4105-8a6c-9e271a1b9f00
Correlation ID: 43cc4c0d-fd23-4b84-a03b-284ff93484a4
Timestamp: 2021-01-16 07:58:47Z'

 

解决思路

根据错误提示,需要在Azure AD中为Python应用程序注册一个授权应用(AAD Application)。并获取AAD应用中的客户端访问密码(Secret)客户端ID(Client ID),租户ID(Tenant ID),配置Python应用端的环境变量,调用azure.identity库中的DefaultAzureCredential函数,完成访问Key Vault资源的授权。整个方案需要以下3个关键步骤:

  1. 注册AAD应用并设置客户端密码
  2. 在Key Vault中对AAD应用完成访问授权(Access Policy)
  3. 配置Python应用端的环境变量

下文为整个方案的操作步骤

 

操作步骤

一:注册AAD 应用,复制出应用的关键信息(Client ID, Tenant ID, Object ID)

【Azure Developer】Python代码通过AAD认证访问微软Azure密钥保管库(Azure Key Vault)中机密信息(Secret)

二:设置AAD 应用客户端密码

  •  在AAD应用页面,进入“证书和密码”页面,点击“新客户端密码”按钮,添加新的Secret(因密码值只能在最开始创建时可见,所以必须在离开页面前复制它

【Azure Developer】Python代码通过AAD认证访问微软Azure密钥保管库(Azure Key Vault)中机密信息(Secret)

三:在Key Vault中设置访问授权

  • 登录Azure门户,进入Key Vault页面(https://portal.azure.cn/#blade/HubsExtension/BrowseResourceBlade/resourceType/Microsoft.KeyVault%2Fvaults)
  • 选择“Access policies”,点击“Add access policy”,使用第一步中的AAD应用名称或Application ID作为Principal。点击“Add”后“Save”。

【Azure Developer】Python代码通过AAD认证访问微软Azure密钥保管库(Azure Key Vault)中机密信息(Secret)

四:设置环境变量

 使用azure.identity库中的DefaultAzureCredential函数,默认会去检测当前环境中是否包含AZURE_CLIENT_ID,AZURE_TENANT_ID,AZURE_CLIENT_SECRET三个变量。

  • AZURE_CLIENT_ID:第一步中的Client ID
  • AZURE_TENANT_ID:第一步中的Tenant ID
  • AZURE_CLIENT_SECRET:第二步中的Secret Value

【Azure Developer】Python代码通过AAD认证访问微软Azure密钥保管库(Azure Key Vault)中机密信息(Secret)

五:运行Python应用

可以在代码中输出上一步中设定的环境变量,以验证值是否正确。

import os
import cmd
from azure.keyvault.secrets import SecretClient
from azure.identity import DefaultAzureCredential

# print('AZURE_TENANT_ID:' +os.environ["AZURE_TENANT_ID"])
# print('AZURE_CLIENT_ID:' +os.environ["AZURE_CLIENT_ID"])
# print('AZURE_CLIENT_SECRET:' +os.environ["AZURE_CLIENT_SECRET"])

keyVaultName = 'mykeyvalue01'
secretName = 'mysecret'
KVUri = f"https://{keyVaultName}.vault.azure.cn"

print(KVUri)
credential = DefaultAzureCredential()
token = credential.get_token("https://vault.azure.cn/.default")
print(token)
client = SecretClient(vault_url=KVUri, credential=credential)

retrieved_secret = client.get_secret(secretName)

print(f"Your secret is '{retrieved_secret.value}'.")
print(f"Your secret properties not_before(nbf) is '{retrieved_secret.properties.not_before}'.")
print(f"Your secret properties expires_on is '{retrieved_secret.properties.expires_on}'.")

 

六:附加:如何获取代码中的Token值

DefaultAzureCredential方法返回credential对象,如果需要知道请求中使用的token值,调用get_token方法,同时需要指定scope,如这里使用的为"https://vault.azure.cn/.default"

credential = DefaultAzureCredential()
token = credential.get_token("https://vault.azure.cn/.default")
print(token)

测试结果如图:

【Azure Developer】Python代码通过AAD认证访问微软Azure密钥保管库(Azure Key Vault)中机密信息(Secret)

 

 

 

附录一:如遗忘以上第三步,没有在Key Vault中对AAD应用赋予访问策略(Access Policy),则获取的错误消息为

azure.core.exceptions.HttpResponseError: (Forbidden) The user, group or application 'appid=xxxxxxxx-05ad-4999-8679-xxxxxxxxxxxx;oid=xxxxxxxx-e256-4650-8ef8-xxxxxxxxxxxx;iss=https://sts.chinacloudapi.cn/xxxxxxxx-66d7-47a8-8f9f-xxxxxxxxxxxx/' does not have secrets get permission on key vault 'keyvault01;location=chinanorth'. For help resolving this issue, please see https://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=2125287

 

参考资料

什么是 Azure Active Directory? https://docs.microsoft.com/zh-cn/azure/active-directory/fundamentals/active-directory-whatis

关于 Azure Key Vault: https://docs.azure.cn/zh-cn/key-vault/general/overview

Azure Key Vault 基本概念 : https://docs.azure.cn/zh-cn/key-vault/general/basic-concepts

将 Azure Key Vault 与通过 Python 编写的虚拟机配合使用 :https://docs.azure.cn/zh-cn/key-vault/general/tutorial-python-virtual-machine

DefaultAzureCredential get_token : https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/python/api/azure-identity/azure.identity.defaultazurecredential?view=azure-python#get-token--scopes----kwargs-

使用Postman获取Azure AD中注册应用程序的授权Token,及为Azure REST API设置Authorization : https://www.cnblogs.com/lulight/p/14279338.html

 

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